BRAIN

 

Alzheimer

  • Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Aggarwal N, Schneider J. 2003. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acid and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology 60(7):940-946.

  • Soderberg M, Edlund C, Kristensson K, Dallner G (1991) Fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids in aging and in Alzheimer’s disease. Lipids 26:421– 425

  • Wang W, Shinto L, Connor WE, Quinn JF. 2008. Nutritional biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease: the association between carotenoids, n-3 fatty acids, and dementia severity. Journal of Alzheimers Disease 13(1):31-38.

  • Yurko-Mauro K. Cognitive and Cardiovascular Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Aging and Cognitive Decline. Curr Alzheimer Res 2010 May 1;7(3):190-6.

Cognitive Decline

  • Fontani G, et al. Cognitive and physiological effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjects, 2005

  • Fontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Migliorini S, Lodi L. 2005a. Cognitive and physiological effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjects. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 35(11):691-699.

  • Gadoth, N. On fish oil and omega-3 supplementation in children: The role of such supplementation on attention and cognitive dysfunction. 2008. Brain Dev. 30: 309-312.

  • Greg M. Cole * and Sally A. Frautschy. DHA May Prevent Age-Related Dementia. The American Institute of Nutrition (2010) http://jn.nutrition.org/content/140/4/869

  • Van de Rest O, Geleijnse JM, Kok JF, van Staveren WA, Dullemeijer C, OldeRikkert MGM, Beekman ATF, de Groot CPGM. 2008. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial. Neurology 71(6):430-438.

     

Mood and Anxiety

  • Buydens-Branchey L, Branchey M, Hibbeln J. Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Feb 15;32(2):568-75. Epub 2007 Nov 1.

  • Buydens-Branchey L, Branchey M, Hibbeln J. Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Feb 15;32(2):568-75. Epub 2007 Nov 1.

  • Buydens-Branchey L, Branchey M, Hibbeln J. Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Feb 15;32(2):568-75. Epub 2007 Nov 1.

  • Kuan-Pin Su, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in prevention of mood and anxiety disorders, 2015. (SANTÉ MENTALE)

     

Depression

  • Deacon G1, Kettle C1, Hayes D2, Dennis C2, Tucci J2.Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the treatment of depression. Food Sci Nutr. 2017

  • Lespérance, François MD, PhD; Nancy Frasure-Smith, PhD; Élise St-André, MD; Gustavo Turecki, MD, PhD; Paul Lespérance, MD, MSc; and Stephen R. Wisniewski, PhD. The Efficacy of Omega-3 Supplementation for Major Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial, The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2010

  • Maes M, Christophe A, Delanghe J, Altamura C, Neels H, Melt-zer HY: Lowered omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients. Psychiatry Res 1999; 85:275–291

  • McNamaraa, Robert K., Susan E. Carlsonb. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in brain development and function: Potential implications for the pathogenesis and prevention of psychopathology. Science Direct 8:07f / W (Jul. 2004) http://www.tritolonen.fi/files/pdf/McNamara_Carlson.pdf

Autism and Asperger's Syndrom

  • Salik R., Patrick L, The effect of essential fatty acid supplementation on language development and learning skills in autism and Aspergers syndrome. Autism-Aspergers Digest 2005;Jan-Feb:36-37.

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

  • Matsudaira, Gow R, T, Taylor E, et al. Total red blood cell concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with emotion-elicited neural activity in adolescent boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2009 Feb-Mar;80(2-3):151-6.

     

HEART

 

Heart Attack

  • Urabe , Y. et al., Dept. of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima. Japan, Association Between Serum Levels of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Coronary Plaque Detected by Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Patients Receiving Statin Therapy, Circulation Journal (Japanese Circulation Society), in press , 2013

     

Coronary Heart Disease

  • Agence de la santé publique du Canada (ASPC) et du Statistique Canada, Portrait de la pratique exemplaire dans la maladie coronarienne, 2010.

  • Whelton SP, He J, Whelton PK, Muntner P. 2004. Meta-analysis of observational studies of fish intake and coronary heart disease. The American Journal of Cardiology 93(9):1119-1123.

     

Stroke

  • Chung M, Balk E, Lichtenstein A, Chew P, Kupelnick B, Lawrence A, DeVine D, Lau J. 2004. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors and intermediate markers of cardiovascular disease. Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 93. AHRQ Publication No. 04-E010-1. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  • Harris WS. 2007. International recommendations for consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. The Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 8(1):S50-S52.

  • Laidlaw M, et al. A randomized clinical trial to determine the efficacy of manufacturers’ recommended doses of omega-3 fatty acids from different sources in facilitating cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Lipids Health Dis 2014 Jun 21; 13:99.

  • MCBURNEY, MICHEAL, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, EPA, DHA, and Heart Health,Omega-3 Fatty Acids, EPA, DHA, and Heart Health – 03 – 2013 – TalkingNutrition – DSM

  • Svensson M, Schmidt EB, Jørgensen KA, Christensen JH. 2006. N-3 fatty acids as secondary prevention against cardiovascular events in patients who undergo chronic hemodialysis: a randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1(4):780-786.

     

Cholesterol

  • J Neubronner, JP Schuchardt, G Kressel, M Merkel, C von Schacky and A Hahn, Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz Universita, Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in response to long-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation from triacylglycerides versus ethyl esters, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, 247–254

  • Maki KC, Bobotas G, Dicklin MR, Huebner M, Keane WF, Effects of MAT9001 containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, compared to eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, on triglycerides, lipoprotein cholesterol, and related variables. J Clin Lipidol. 2017 Jan - Feb;11(1):102-109. doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2016.10.010. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

  • Pratibha Dubey, Anura P. Jayasooriya* and Sukhinder K. Cheema, Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University, St. John’s, NL, A1B 3X9, Canada *Current Address: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka. Diets Enriched in Fish-Oil or Seal-Oil have Distinct Effects on Lipid Levels and Peroxidation in BioF1B Hamsters, Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 2011:4

  • Skulas-Ray, Ann C. , Michael R. Flock, Chesney K. Richter, William S. Harris, Sheila G. West 1,3 and Penny M. Kris-Etherton., Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation, Nutrients 2015, 7, 6390-6404; doi:10.3390/nu7085291

Hypertension

  • Appel LJ, Miller ER III, Seidler AJ, Whelton PK. Does supplementation of diet with ’fish oil’ reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:1429 –1438.

     

Atherosclerosis

  • Flock M, Kris-Etherton P. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010: implications for cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2011 Dec; 13(6): 499-507.

  • Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ: Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new recommendations from the American Heart Association. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003, 23: 151– 152.

     

PREGNANCY/CHILD DEVELOPMENT

 

Pregnancy

  • Bishop NA1,1, Leblanc CP, Dietary Intake of DHA and EPA in a Group of Pregnant Women in the Moncton Area. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2017 Feb 1:1-7. doi: 10.3148/cjdpr-2016-033. [Epub ahead of print]

  • Hanebutt F, Demmelmair H, Schiessl B, et al. Long-chain poluunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) transfer across the placenta. Clin Nutr 2008 Oct; 27 (5): 685-93.

  • Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie, Ikuo Morita, Sei-itsu Murota,Department Physiological Chemistry, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5, n-3),an elongation metabolite of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3), is a potent stimulator or endothelial cell migration on pretreatment in vitro, Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (1996) 54(5), 319-325

  • Makrides1, Maria, Understanding the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy on multiple outcomes from the DOMInO trial, ublished by EDP Sciences 2015DOI: 10.1051/ocl/2015045

  • Ostadrahimi, Alireza, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh, Mozhgan Mirgafourvand, Sina Yaghoubi,4 Elham Shahrisa, Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili,, Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM): A Systematic Review, Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016 Nov; 18(11): e24690.

     

Breastfeeding

  • Juber BA, Jackson KH, Johnson KB, Harris WS, Baack ML., Breast milk DHA levels may increase after informing women: a community-based cohort study from South Dakota USA. Int Breastfeed J. 2017
    Jan 28;12:7. doi: 10.1186/s13006-016-0099-0. eCollection 2016.

  • Marszalek JR, Lodish HF. 2005. Docosahexaenoic acid, fatty acid-interacting protein, and neuronal function: breastmilk and fish are good for you. Annual Review of Cellular and Developmental Biology 21:633-657

     

Baby's Immune System

  • Dunstan JA, Mori TA, Barden A, Beilin LJ, Taylor AL, Holt PG, Prescott SL. 2003. Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in
    infants at high risk of atopy: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 112(6):1178-1184.

  • Dunstan JA, Roper J, Mitoulas L, Hartmann PE, Simmer K, Prescott SL. 2004. The effect of supplementation with fish oil during pregnancy on breast milk immunoglobulin A, soluble CD14, cytokine levels, and fatty acid composition. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 34(8):1237-1242.

  • Hans Bisgaard et al. Fish Oil–Derived Fatty Acids in Pregnancy and Wheeze and Asthma in Offspring. N Engl J Med 2016; 375:2530-2539 December 29, 2016 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1503734

     

Postnatal Health

  • Borja-Hart NL1, Marino J. Role of omega-3 Fatty acids for prevention or treatment of perinatal depression. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Feb;30 (2):210-6. doi: 10.1592/phco.30.2.210.

  • Da Rocha C, Kac G. High dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated acids during pregnancy and prevalence of post-partum depression. Matern Child Nutr 2012 Jan;8(1):36-48.

  • Gould JF, Best K, Makrides M.,Perinatal nutrition interventions and post-partum depressive symptoms., J Affect Disord. 2016 Dec 18. pii: S0165-0327(16)31113-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.014.

  • Masoumi SZ1, Kazemi F2, Tavakolian S3, Rahimi A4, Oshvandi K5, Soltanian A6, Shobeiri F1.Effect of Citalopram in Combination with Omega-3 on Depression in Post-menopausal Women: A Triple Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Jan 2;57(1):212-223.

  • Mills MD. 1999. The eye in childhood. American Family Physician 60:907-918

  • Oh R. 2005. Practical applications of fish oil (Ω-3 fatty acids) in primary care. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practitioners 18(1):28-36.

     

Learning Skills

  • European Food Safety Authority. 2008. Scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Arachidonic Acid (ARA) and support of the neural development of the brain and eyes pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. The EFSA Journal 794:1-11.

  • Giedd JN, Blumenthal J, Jeffries NO, Castellanos FX, Liu H, Zijdenbos A, Paus T, Evans AC, Rapoport JL. 1999. Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Nature
    Neuroscience 2(10):861-863.

  • Haag M. 2003. Essential fatty acids and the brain. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 48(3):195-203.

  • Helland IC, Smith L, Saarem K, et al. Maternal supplementation with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 2003;111:39-44.

  • Uauy, R., Hoffmann, D. R., Peirano, P., Birch, D. G. & Birch, E. E. Essential fatty acids in visual and brain development (2001) Lipids 36, 885–895.

 

INFLAMMATION/JOINT

 

Rhumatoïd Polyarthritis

  • Kremer, J.M. 2000. n23 Fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(suppl):349S–51S.

  • Olendzki B, Leung K, Van Buskirk S, et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with marine and botanical oils: influence on serum lipids. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 201; 2011: 827286.

  • Seddon, J. et al. Dietary fat and risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration. 2001. Arch. Ophthalmol. 109:1191-1199.

  • Volker D, Fitzgerald P, Major G, Garg M. 2000. Efficacy of fish oil concentrate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The Journal of Rheumatology 27(10):2343-2346.

     

Crohn’s Disease

Ulcerative Colitis

  • Turner, D., AH Steinhart, AM Griffiths, Omega 3 fatty acids for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis, 18 April 2007

     

Cystic Fibrosis

  • Oliver C1, Jahnke N., Omega-3 fatty acids for cystic fibrosis. 2011 Aug 10;(8):CD002201. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002201.pub3.

     

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

  • Walton, A. J. E., Snaith, M. L., Locniskar, M., Cumberland, A. G., Morrow, W. J. W. & Isenberg, D. A. (1991) Dietary fish oil and the severity of symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 50: 463–466

     

Inflammation

  • Artemis P. Simopoulos, MD, FACN. Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases.

  • Barham JB, Edens MB, Fonteh AN, et al. Addition of eicosapentaenoic acid to gamma-linolenic acid supplemented diets prevents serum arachidonic acid accumulation in humans. J Nutr 2000; 130:1925-1931.

  • Calder P. N-/ Plyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. Am/ Clin Nutr 2006; 83:S1505-1519

  • Maroon J, Bost J. Omega-3 Fatty Acids (fish oil) as an inflammatory: an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for discogenic pain. Surg Neurol 2006; 65: 326-331.

  • Nakamura K, et al. Influence of preoperative administration of omega-3 fatty acid-enriched supplement on inflammatory and immune responses in patients undergoing major surgery for cancer, 2005.

 

CANCER

  • Nakamura K, Kariyazono H, Komokata T, Hamada N, Sakata R, Yamada K. 2005. Influence of preoperative administration of ω-3 fatty acid-enriched supplement on inflammatory and immune responses in patients undergoing major surgery for cancer. Nutrition 21(6):639-645

  • Rose DP, Connolly JM: Omega-3 fatty acids as cancer chemo-preventive agents. Pharmacol Ther 83: 217–244, 1999

     

Prostate

  • Rose DP, Connolly JM: Omega-3 fatty acids as cancer chemo-preventive agents. Pharmacol Ther 83: 217–244, 1999

     

Colon

  • ANTI M, ARMELAO F, MARRA G, PERCESEPE A, BARTOLI GM, PALOZZA P, PARRELLA P, CANETTA C, GENTILONI N, DE VITIS I: Effects of different doses of fish oil on rectal cell proliferation in patients with sporadic colonic adenomas. Gastroenterology 107: 1709-1718, 1994

  • Belluzzi A, Brignola C, Campieri M, et al. Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med 1996; 334:1557-1560.

     

Breasts

  • Terry, P. et al., 2002. Nutr. Cancer 44:1-6.

  • Fabian, Carol J , Bruce F Kimler and Stephen D Hursting, Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship, Breast Cancer Research2015

     

Lungs

OTHERS

 

General

         DPA's Avantages

 

10 X more efficient:

  • Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie, Ikuo Morita, Sei-itsu Murota. Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5, n -3), an elongation metabolite of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3) is a potente stimulator of endothelial cell migration on pretreatment in vitro. 54(5):319-25 (1996).

  • Mann, Neil J., Stella L. O’Connell, Kylie M. Baldwin, Indu Singh, Barbara J. Meyer. Effects of Seal Oil and Tuna-Fish Oil on Platelet Parameters and Plasma Lipid Levels in Healthy Subjects. Epub (2010). http://www.sealsandsealing.net/resources/Mann_et_al_2010.pdf

 

Better assimilation of other fatty acids:

 

Increases all fatty acids levels:

  • Miller E. et al, A short-term n-3 DPA supplementation study in humans. Eur J Nutr, 2013.

 

More:

  • Dyerberg J, et al. Bioavailability of marine n-3 fatty acid formulations. 2010

  • EFSA 212 : European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion: Scientific opinion on the tolerable upper intake level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). EFSA Journal 2012;10(7):2815. [Internet]. [Consulté le 8 juillet 2013]. Disponible à : http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/2815.pdf

  • Kaur G, et al. Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3): a review of its biological effects, 2011.

  • Mann NJ, et al. Effects of seal oil and tuna-fish oil on platelet parameters and plasma lipid levels in healthy subjects. 2010

  • Mason RP, Sherratt SC.Omega-3 fatty acid fish oil dietary supplements contain saturated fats and oxidized lipids that may interfere with their intended biological benefits. 2017

  • Miller E. et al, A short-term n-3 DPA supplementation study in humans. Eur J Nutr, 2013.

  • Miller, E., Kaur, G., Larsen, A., Loh, S. P., Linderborg, K., Weisinger, H. S., et al. (2013). A short-term n-3 DPA supplementation study in humans. Eur. J. Nutr. 52, 895–904. doi: 10.1007/s00394-012-0396-3

  • Wang J, et al. Effect of chemical randomization on positional distribution and stability of omega-3 oil triacylglycerols. 2010

Enhances muscular performances

  • Evan J. H. Lewis, Peter W. Radonic, Thomas M. S. Wolever ,Greg D. Wells, 21 days of mammalian omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves aspects of neuromuscular function and performance in male athletes compared to olive oil placebo, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition201512:28

  • Zebrowska et al. “Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation improves endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake in endurance-trained athletes.” Eur J Sport Sci 15: 305-314 (2015).

Avoids Power Drops

  • Huffman et al. “Effect of n-3 fatty acids on free tryptophan and exercise fatigue.” Eur J Appl Physiol 92:584-591 (2004).

  • LEGER C, C-Y GUEZENNEC, N KADRI HASSINI, P SATABIN. Les acides gras phospho-lipidiques membranaires au cours de l’effort physique de longue durée avec ou sans apport nutritionnel d’huile de poissons. Cah Nutr Diét, XXVII(2): 82-89, 1992

Diabetes

  • Hartweg J, Perera R, Montori V, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23; (1):CD003205.

 

Immune System

  • Neil J. Mann, et al. Effects of seal oil and tuna-fish oil on platelet parameters and plasma lipid levels in healthy subjects, epub, 2010

 

Respiratory System

  • ALEXANDER LEAF D, C RANAN RAUCH. Hypothesis: Omega-3 fatty acids and blood rheology: Implications for human aerobic performance. Ann Sports Med, 4(1): 32-36, 1988.

  • Mickeborough, T, Lindley M, Montgomery G. Effect of fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and immune function in athletes. Phys Sportmed 2008 Dec; 36 (1): 11-7.

  • Zebrowska et al. “Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation improves endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake in endurance-trained athletes.” Eur J Sport Sci 15: 305-314 (2015).

 

Sight System

  • Hodge W, Barnes D, Schachter HM, Pan Y, Lowcock EC, Zhang L, Sampson M, Morrison A, Tran K, Miguelez M, Lewin G. 2005. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Eye Health. Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 117. AHRQ No. 05-E008-2. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

 

Skin Diseases

  • McCusker M, Grant-Kels J. Healing fats of the skin: the structural and immunologic roles of the Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Clin Dermatol 2010 Jul-Aug; 28(4):440-51.

  • Soyland E, Funk J, Rajka G, et al. Dietary supplement of n-3 fatty acids to patients with atopic dermatitis. A multi-center stury. Br J Dermatol 1994; 130:757-764.

References

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